Literature Review: Breakdown

I have sectioned my literature Review into seven sections; OntologyCoordination or Style, Our Role as Disclosers, Commitment, Breakdown, Disclosing New Technologies, Designing Disclosure .Have a look at my problem statement here.



Breakdowns play a fundamental role in design. The objects and properties that constitute the domain of action for a person are those that emerge in breakdown.

In creating new artefacts, equipment, buildings and organizational structures – attempts to specify in advance how and where breakdowns will show up in our everyday practices and tools we use, opening up new spaces in which we can work and play (Winograd & Flores, 1987).

A breakdown is not a negative situation to be avoided, but a situation of non-obviousness, in which the recognition that something is missing leads to concealing (generating through our declarations) some aspect of the network of tools that we are engaged in using. A breakdown reveals the connections  of relations necessary for us to accomplish our task and this shows a clear objective for design – to anticipate and be sensitive to the forms of breakdown and provide a space of possibilities for action when they occur.

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